## Note Value

Once we understand the concept of measure and beats, we can start reading music.
The duration of a sound is indicated using several symbols. Let’s start by getting to know the symbols with durations of one, two and four beats:

Name (USA)Name (England)DurationSymbol
Whole NoteSemibreve4 beats
Half NoteMinim2 beats
Quarter NoteCrotchet1 beat
Note the relationship of values between the different symbols:

 Each whole note (semibreve): is divided into two half notes (minim). And each half note (minim) is divided into two quarter notes (crotchet) Thus, each symbol will have half the value of the preceding shape.

# Values Shorter Than a Beat

The smallest value we have seen up to this point is that of the quarter note (crotchet), which lasts for a whole beat. Of course, there are symbols for notes of shorter duration.
Here you can see symbols that take a half (50%) or a fourth (25%) of a beat:

SymbolsNameValue
Eighth note
(quaver)
Half of a quarter note.
We can have two eighth
notes for each beat.
Sixteenth note
(semiquaver)
One fourth of a quarter note.
We can have four of
these for each beat.
It is common practice to beam together the flags of eighth notes and sixteenth notes that are part of the same beat, in order to facilitate reading.

## REST NOTES

There is an equivalent Rest notation for each Note value.
Rest name and its lengths are the same as Note name and length. There are four basic Rest with corresponding Note:

Whole Note Rest
is Semibreve Rest (British) or Whole Note Rest (American). It lasts as long as a Whole Note, which is four beats in 4/4 time.

Half Note Rest
is Minim Rest (British) or Half Note Rest (American). It lasts as long as a Half Note, which is two beats in 4/4 time.

Crochet Note Rest
is Crochet Rest (British) or Quarter Note Rest (American). It lasts as long as a Quarter Note, which is one beats in 4/4 time.

Quaver Note Rest

is Quaver Rest (British) or Eight Note Rest (American). It lasts as long as a Quarter Note, which is half a beats in 4/4 time

EXERCISES about the rest notes names of the rests

WORKSHEETS

# FAMILIES OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

Musical instruments are grouped into families based on how they make sounds. In an orchestra, musicians sit together in these family groupings. But not every instrument fits neatly into a group. For example, the piano has strings that vibrate, and hammers that strike. Is it a string instrument or a percussion instrument? Some say it is both!

### Brass

Brass instruments are made of brass or some other metal and make sound when air is blown inside. The musician's lips must buzz, as though making a "raspberry" noise against the mouthpiece. Air then vibrates inside the instrument, which produces a sound.
Brass instruments include trumpet, trombone, tuba, French horn, cornet, and bugle.

### Percussion

Most percussion instruments make sounds when they are hit, such as a drum or a tambourine. Others are shaken, such as maracas, and still others may be rubbed, scratched, or whatever else will make the instrument vibrate and thus produce a sound.
Percussion instruments include drums, cymbals, triangle, chimes, tam-tam, glockenspiel, timpani, bells, and xylophone.

### Strings

Yes, the sounds of string instruments come from their strings. The strings may be plucked, as in a guitar or harp; bowed, as with a cello or a violin; or struck, as with a dulcimer. This creates a vibration that causes a unique sound.
Stringed instruments include the violin, viola, cello, bass, harp, and dulcimer.

### Woodwinds

Woodwind instruments produce sound when air (wind) is blown inside. Air might be blown across an edge, as with a flute; between a reed and a surface, as with a clarinet; or between two reeds, as with a bassoon. The sound happens when the air vibrates inside.
Woodwind instruments include flute, piccolo, clarinet, recorder, bassoon, and oboe.

### PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS

CAN YOU IDENTIFY THE NAMES OF THESE PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS?
DIRECTIONS:
Using the word bank as a guide (if needed) write the names of the instruments below their picture.

BASS DRUM; BELL TREE; BONGOS; CABASA; CASTINETS; CLAVES; COWBELL; CRASH CYMBALS; DRUM SET; FINGER CYMBALS; FLEXATONE; JINGLE BELLS; GONG; GUIRO(modern); GUIRO(older style); HAND DRUM; MARACAS(modern); MARACAS(older style); MARIMBA; RATCHET; SAND BLOCKS; SLAPSTICK; SNARE DRUM; SPOONS; SUSPENDED CYMBALS; TAMBOURINE; TIMPANI; TRIANGLE; VIBRAPHONE; VIBRASNAP(VIBRASLAP); VIBRATONE(WAH WAH SOUND); WOODBLOCK